Recent air quality and weather
About particles (PM2.5) hourly
PM2.5 are fine particles in air with a diameter of 2.5 micrometres or less. PM itself is short for 'particulate matter', another term for particles. They are generated by combustion processes from sources such as vegetation fires, motor vehicles and industrial activities. PM2.5 is reported in unit of microgram per cubic meter (µg/m3).
These small particles can get deep into the lungs and be absorbed into the blood stream. Short term impacts include difficulty in breathing and worsening of asthma or chronic bronchitis symptoms. They can also cause irritation of eyes, nose and throat.
|Air quality rating||μg/m3|
About particles (PM10)
PM10 are particles in air with a diameter of 10 micrometres or less. PM itself is short for 'particulate matter', another term for particles. They can include dust or sea salt, as well as smaller particles generated from combustion processes such as vegetation fires, motor vehicles and industrial sources. PM10 is reported in unit of microgram per cubic meter (µg/m3).
These particles can pass into the lungs. Short term impacts include difficulty in breathing and worsening of asthma or chronic bronchitis symptoms. They can also cause irritation of eyes, nose and throat.
|Air quality rating||µg/m3|
Ammonia is a colourless volatile gas with a pungent odour. It is emitted from both natural and human sources, such as decaying organic matter like animal waste, landfills, fertilisers and industrial production. Its chemical formula is NH3. Concentrations are reported as parts per hundred million (pphm).
Ammonia is monitored at the Stockton station in the Lower Hunter region. No air quality categories are applied to ammonia measurements.
About nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide is a brown gas that at high concentrations has an irritating odour. It is often found at its highest concentrations near busy roads and can also be high indoors when un-flued gas appliances are used. Its chemical formula is NO2. Concentrations are reported as parts per hundred million (pphm).
Nitrogen dioxide at higher concentrations is a respiratory irritant which can worsen the symptoms of existing respiratory illness. It also makes people with asthma more susceptible to lung infections and asthma triggers like pollen.
|Air quality rating||pphm|
About carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide is an odourless and colourless gas.. It is produced by incomplete combustion, where there is no sufficient oxygen present to form carbon dioxide. The major sources are motor vehicle exhaust and vegetation fires. Its chemical formula is CO. Concentrations are reported as 8-hour rolling averages in parts per million (ppm).
|Air quality rating||8-hour rolling ppm|
About sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide is a colourless gas with a sharp odour. The main sources are fossil fuel combustion, particularly at power plants and mineral ores smelters. Its chemical formula is SO2. Concentrations are reported as parts per hundred million (pphm).
Sulfur dioxide at higher concentrations can irritate the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. It may worsen existing cardiovascular or respiratory illnesses, such as asthma.
|Air quality rating||pphm|
|Air quality rating||1-hour pphm|
About ozone 4h-rolling
|Air quality rating||4-hour rolling pphm|
About wind speed
Horizontal wind is measured at some stations, reported as hourly average in metre per second (m/s). Wind speed represents the rate or speed at which air is moving. The average wind speed is expressed in metres per second. To convert this to kilometres per hour, multiply the reading in metres per second by a factor of 3.6.
About wind direction
Horizontal wind is measured at some stations, reported as hourly average in degrees (o). Wind direction represents the direction the wind is blowing from, according to the compass. It is labelled following meteorological conventions, such as NW for north-westerly or S for southerly, indicating where the wind was coming from. The arrow on the wind direction plot shows the direction the wind is moving towards.
Ambient air temperature is measured at some stations, expressed as hourly average in degrees Celsius.
Relative humidity is measured at some stations, expressed as hourly average in percentage (%). These refer to the amount of moisture in the air as a percentage of the amount the air can actually hold. Warmer air can hold more moisture than cooler air, which means that for a given amount of atmospheric moisture, Relative humidity will be lower if air is warm than it would be if the air is cool.
This interactive map shows locations of all air quality monitoring stations across the East Sydney region.